The functionalities of AMRs are manifold.
Indoor & outdoor localization
Human Machine Interface
Obstacle detection & avoidance
People & object recognition
Online resource management
Working tool control
A.I. based Fleet Manager
Type of Powertrain
There are many different types of propulsion system architecture that can be adopted in the AMR depending on the specific requirements: two traction wheels running parallel to each other make up the “electronic differential” or dual-drive system; a traction wheel with an integrated steering axle and two passive wheels is the typical configuration of lifts equipped with forks for handling pallets; four non-steering drive wheels are widely used in applications where wheel slip ensures the rotation of the vehicle (e.g. in agriculture or construction).
For each type of electric motor, an appropriate type of power unit is matched, from the simplest for brush motors, induction motors and brushless motors, characterized by high efficiency and precision.
Steering and traction
Electronic differential drive
Various types of sensors are used on mobile robots to enable both two- and three-dimensional reconstruction of the environment, as well as the essential safety functions.
For two-dimensional mapping and localization of the environment, infrared optical lasers are used, which scan the operating scenario up to 360° and choose various levels of resolution depending on the precision required for the specific application.
Stereo cameras allow a reconstruction of the surrounding environment and are typically used to recognize objects and obstacles as well as people, thus giving the possibility to avoid them during automatic navigation.
Finally, it is possible to equip the machine with automotive-derived ultrasound sensors to detect objects and obstacles that, due to their reflection characteristics, are difficult to intercept by the infrared rays of laser scanners. Infrared sensors, for example, can detect large windows and transparent objects that are difficult to see with vision.